Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Reflective Essay Essay

The aim of this essay is to prove an understanding of my perception of reflection and how reflective practice impacts on the clinical environment and the learning process. The essay is based on my practice and training in the cardiac ward during my Foundation degree in Health and Social Care. I have selected 5 extracts from my Reflective Journal concerning a patient experiencing shortness of breath which led to a cardiac arrest. In order to be able to use this situation for my reflective process the patient will be referred to as â€Å"Jane† for the maintaining of confidentiality according to the Nursery and Midwifery Council (NMC, 2008).I have chosen to discuss on the case of Jane as the situation I was confronted with at the time made me reflect on issues of decision and the importance of communication and interpersonal skills in the relationship with the patient. I will be using the What? Model of Structured Reflection (Driscoll, 2007) a framework that uses three simple que stions as guidance in reflective practice, namely What? So what? Now what? I have chosen this model as I believe is a practical solution that can be applied by health care professionals in a rapid and efficient manner. It stimulates an in depth meaningful reflective process that leads to an actual plan for future actions. According to Johns (2013) reflection can be viewed as a window through which a practitioner can see himself in the context of his practice and have a clear view of his/her experience, being able to make an analysis between what should be done and the actual practice. Searching for a deeper understanding of the decisions and actions taken in one’s activity can generate evolution of each professional and the development of his/her work practice (Benner, 2001). The process of reflection can be developed on two levels depending on its complexity and the details it comprises. Therefore reflection can be made in a deep and meaningful manner that considers all aspects of the situation or in a superficial manner that leads to solving problems based on factors such as tradition or work pressure (Lowe, 2007). Another downfall of reflection can be the focusing on the negative aspects of the way a situation has been managed instead of concentrating on the potential for development based on a critical evaluation (Bradbury-Jones,, 2009). When trying to improve knowledge from practice, there are several models of reflection aimed at directing individual reflection. Among them, the Gibbs’  model of reflection (1988, cited in Callara, 2008) has stages that include the description of the situation, feelings experienced during the situation, an evaluation regarding the positive and negative aspects, an analysis process followed by a conclusion which should include what could have been done in the situation and an action plan for future actions if a similar situation occurs (Gibbs, 1988, cited in Callara, 2008). Johns’ model of reflection (2013) on the other side focuses on questions regarding the intention of the action taken, the reason that was at the base of action, the practical and affective consequences on the patient, the patient’s family, the practitioner and his/her work colleagues. Johns (2013) also highlights the importance of influencing internal and external factors in the decisional process and the possible alternative solutions that could have been found. The reflection process suggested by Johns (2013) ends wi th a learning phase that aims at understanding the effects of the experience and how it reflects on practice. Although there are numerous reflective frameworks, none of them should be used as a rigid tool which asks questions that need to be answered. They are all intended to offer a certain structure of the reflective process and guide the practitioner towards deeper understanding (Lowe, 2007). I have chosen Driscoll’s model as I believe it is a practical tool that allows free thinking and rapid understanding of the situation. Coward (2011) states that following a rigid model of reflection limits the thinking process and undermines the reflective process. Throughout my reflective process I have chosen to discuss also on the subject of decision making as the Code of Professional Conduct (NMC, 2008) underlines the fact that nursing practitioners are accountable for their decisions. During a working day in a hospital there are numerous clinical decisions that need to be made and as Dowie (1993, cited in Raynor, 2005) states, the decisional process is manly a choice between several alternatives. According to Burns and Bulman (2000) through reflection we can have a clear understanding of the reasons that lie behind our de cision. This is what I have learned during my training and through my clinical experience, that only thinking about the actions I take in different situations helps me evaluate my work and understand what further knowledge I need in order to become a professional. Writing a journal that detailed my thoughts and worries on specific situations I was confronted  with in the cardiac ward helped me learn and develop my skills, as Moon (2004) stated. Jane was a 60 year old lady diagnosed with valvular heart disease. She has been submitted in the hospital several times before as she experienced shortness of breath and released from the hospital when her condition stabilised. On that day I was helping the nurse observing the patients, taking vital signs and recording blood results. Her observations on that day were within normal limits, but even so she complained about shortness of breath. Her husband had just visited half an hour before and the breathing problems appeared after he left. The nurse asked her if she received any unsettling news from her husband because her state changed suddenly after he left. She told us that one of her sons was in town for a short period of time, came to visit not knowing she was in the hospital and left worried bac k home as he had to be back at work in the same day. The nurse told Jane that her son will be fine and probably will come back to visit very soon. However, I could see that Jane was feeling anxious and had a desperate look in her eyes. She repeated several times that she couldn’t breathe and the nurse told her that she will be alright if she tried to calm down and relax. The nurse didn’t seem to worry too much as the patient’s observations were within limits. Jane saw the fact that I was gazing at her while wondering if this is more than the observations might show. She took my hand and asked me not leave, because she needed someone by her side. At first I told her I would be there for as long as she wishes, but then I was called to help other nurses because they needed me in the ward. I assured her that I will come back. Unfortunately, the day passed very quickly and time came for me to go home. Before I left, I asked the nurse who was attending Jane about her condition and she said she was still upset about the news her husband have her, but that her medical conditions was within limits. When I returned the next day I was informed by the nurse that Jane suffered a cardiac arrest over the nigh t and although cardiac procedures were made nothing could be done and she was pronounced dead. My first thought after I heard the news was that probably, considering her heart condition nothing could have been done. However, after I read the journal and the notes I made in it about this case and applied the Driscoll model I began questioning about my actions and think about what I should be doing if a similar situations occurs. Reflecting on the incident made me wonder  whether I acted accordingly with the NMC (2008) which states that I am accountable for my actions and omissions even if I follow the advice of other professionals. This is what happened in this situation as well, as I felt and thought that there might be more than unsettling news that could be disturbing Jane. Even so, it is well-known the fact that stress influences the medical condition of patients with heart diseases and this could have been a hint that her condition might get worse (Meterko, et al, 2010). According to Basford (2003) anxiety and fear of the patient can be reduced if he/she receives the affective support of a nurse. I felt I didn’t do enough for Jane, as the least I could have done was to be there and talk to her and maybe her breathing would have come to a regular level. Basford (2003) highlights the importance of communication and interpersonal skills of nursing practitioners in their relationship with the patie nt. Being warm and appearing willing to listen and talk to the patients can sometimes make a big difference in someone’s medical condition. I believe that the lack of communication with the patient was the biggest mistake I made in this case. I feel know that if I stayed by her side and tried to comfort her she would have become more relaxed and perhaps wouldn’t have triggered the cardiac arrest. I think that at that time assuring her that it will all be alright and that feeling better was the most important thing for her and her son as well was the best thing to do. This was a point where the decision I made was not according to NMC (2008) as the relationship between me and the patient was broken because of lack of communication. This situation made me think about my communication skills and how important they are in my profession. Being assertive and saying what’s on my mind if I have a suspicion that more than what meets the eye might happen is what learned I should do in the future. Moreover, I think I still have to work on my empathy and compassion as I believe this would improve also the quality of the observations I make during the time I spend with patients. Reflecting on the action I took made me understand that guidelines cannot prepare me for all types of situations that can be met in the ward. They are very useful s guidance for the majority of cases, but most of the times it is the individual’s responsibility to act as he thinks it’s appropriate at the given time (Scott and Spouse, 2013). This assertion becomes more relevant especially when it comes to dealing with interpersonal issues that don’t  come across as essential tasks in dealing with patients. Focusing on the regular work practices and tasks most of the times takes our mind away from the interpersonal aspect and the fact that we are actually the ones that patients look at for compassion and relief (Rolf, 2001). There are situations, as the case of Jane when listening and being by the patient’s side can bring more benefit than measuring their blood pressure or taking vital signs. Conclusion Reflection can vary from deep and meaningful to superficial inquiry. As I stated above the care for patients can be improved through reflective practice that leads to a plan of action for future situations. The case of Jane helped me understand the importance of communication and compassion in the relationship with the patient. Also, although I might not be the one most experienced in situation, I should have the courage to speak my mind and raise certain issues if I feel they could make a difference in the patient’s condition. Driscoll’s model of reflection made me understand the situation I was in, identify my learning needs and find ways through which I can improve my performance and patient care. I also believe that reflection also helps health care professionals become motivated and empowered by the feeling that they actually have a word to say in the care of the patient and that they can influence important situations and outcomes for their patients. References Benner, P., 2001. From Novice to expert: Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. London: Prentice Hall Basford, L., 2003. Theory and Practice of Nursing: An Integrated Approach to Caring Practice. Nelson Thrones Bradbury-Jones, C., 2009. A new way of reflecting in nursing: the Peshkin Approach. Journal of advanced Nursing, 65 (11), pp.2485-2493 [online] Available at: [Accessed the 15th of February 2014] Callara, L.E., 2008. Nursing Education Challenges in the 21st Century. Nova Publishers Coward, M., 2011. Does the use of reflective models restrict critical thinking and therefore learning in nurse education? What have we done? Nurse Education Today, 31(8), pp.883-886 [online] Available at: [Accessed the 12th of February 2014]. Driscoll, J., 2007. Practising Clinical Supervision: A Reflective Approach for Healthcare Professionals. Elsevier Health Sciences Johns, C., 2013. Becoming a Reflective Practitioner; Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd Lowe, M., Rappolt, S., Jaglal, S. and Macdonald, G., 2007. The Role of Reflection in Implementing Learning from Continuing Education into Practice. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 27(3), pp.143-148 [online] Available at: [Accessed the 18th of February 2014] Meterko, M. et al, 2010. Job Satisfaction of Primary Care Team Members and Quality of Care. American Journal of Medical Quality, 26(18), pp.8-9 [online] Available at: [Accessed the 15th of February 2014] Moon, J., 2004. Reflection in learning and professional development, theory and practice. Oxon: Routledge Falmer Nursing and midwifery Council (NMC), 2008. The code: standards of conduct, performance and ethics for nurses and midwives. London: Nursing and Midwifery Council Raynor, M.D.,, 2005. Decision Making in Midwifery Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences Scott, I. and Spouse, J., 2013. Practice based learning in nursing, health, and social care: Mentorship, facilitation and supervision. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell . Rolf, G., Freshwater, D. and Jasper M. (2001) Critical reflection for nursing and the helping professions: a users guide. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Plagiarism By Robert J. Youmans - 900 Words

Plagiarism in the Classroom Plagiarism has long since been an issue- especially in the classroom. Students try to pass off other people’s work as their own, sometimes stealing ideas, other times even entire papers. In Melissa D’Annunzio’s Ted Talk, â€Å"The Punishable Perils of Plagiarism†, she illustrates the severity of plagiarism through an animated video. In the video, there’s a fake department in charge of tracking down people who plagiarize and then throwing them in jail. By making up this scenario, she shows just how serious plagiarism is, and how that is often highly underestimated. In the article â€Å"Avoiding Plagiarism†, Karl Stolley, Allen Brizee, and Joshua Paiz go into the different types of plagiarism- from unintentional to intentional and highlight some of the struggles students face when trying to avoid plagiarism. In the journal article â€Å"Does the Adoption of Plagiarism- detection Software in Higher Education Reduce P lagiarism?† by Robert J. Youmans, two studies are discussed, and it’s shown how even telling students that their work will be checked against plagiarism- detection software doesn’t keep them from plagiarizing. By looking at these three sources, and comparing and contrasting them, the issue of plagiarism can be greater realized. In the journal article â€Å"Does the Adoption of Plagiarism- detection Software in Higher Education Reduce Plagiarism, Youmans discusses two studies. In the first study, students in two classes from a university were randomly splitShow MoreRelatedPlagiarism Essay887 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction Plagiarism is copying another persons ideas, words or writing and pretending that they are ones and one’s own work. Whenever another persons work is copied and republished without an appropriate reference it is considered plagiarism. Because it is so easy to copy and paste digital information, plagiarism in the information age has become a serious problem. The best way to avoid plagiarism is to avoid reading anything written by somebody else. In simple words plagiarism is kidnapping

Sunday, December 29, 2019

The Problems behind Immigration Essay - 790 Words

Live is like a sea it has it’s calm times and it’s angry time you just have keep your boat stable until this waves pass away and continue on your way but some people use these waves as excuse to run away and escape from facing their troubles and problems. if you ask anyone what is your favorite place on this earth? And the place he or she feels comfortable the most? The answer will be home, so how would you feel if you had to leave your home for any reason there could be? Escaping your problem is not one of them. Immigration is a very delicate problem that almost every country faces these days, so how we can solve this problem? First we have to look at the reasons and try to solve them from the bottom and immigration is no good for†¦show more content†¦Another disadvantage of immigration is concerned with the social aspect and here I mean working parents who leave not only their countries but also their families which can cause major problems in the society bec ause children who are raised by only one parent are going have problems because they miss their fathers or mothers and there is no guarantee that they are going to see them in along time which is like they are orphans who can’t see their parents and miss them. Although some countries support family based immigration like the united states of America but in certain situations like in order to be admitted through the family preference system, a U.S. Citizen or LPR sponsor must petition for an individual relative (and establish the legitimacy of the relationship), meet minimum income requirements and sign an affidavit of support stating that they will be financially responsible for their family member(s) upon arrival to the United States. (American immigration council, November 4, 2010). As you see there is more harm than good for immigration. Some political reasons can be the problem of immigration for an example some countries don’t give out visas for certain nationalities because of political issues between them like war andShow MoreRelatedEssay about Illegal Immigration and the Environment1676 Words   |  7 PagesIllegal Immigration and the Environment One of the most controversial political issues of today is illegal immigration. Illegal immigration describes the long-term shift of populations across national borders without complying with the legal requirements. Many people are crossing the United States borders illegally to find better jobs, escape political persecution, and to help out families back home. Some Americans are against this movement of immigrants. One problem is because of the damagingRead MoreSummary Of Alien Nation : Common Sense About America s Immigration Disaster1317 Words   |  6 PagesAnnotated bibliography Reflection paper Brimelow, Peter. Alien nation: common sense about America’s immigration disaster. (1995). This article talks about immigration and its consequences in America. In addition to this, the paper talks about the reasons behind the ballooning level of immigrants in amerce. Some of the reasons that the article outlines include; search for better employment in the US as they fear their nations which have low levels of employment, escape war from their nationsRead MoreHow Can We Deal with the Problem of Illegal Immigration Essay1122 Words   |  5 Pages How Can We Deal With The Problem Of Illegal Immigration? Being here as an illegal immigrant is a huge problem. Tax payer’s money pays for their medical bills, the jails, and deportation back to where they came from. Our jobs and identities are being taken away as well. Coming to the United States is seen as an advantage to get ahead in life for most other countries. When they take advantage of breaking the system it effects the citizens more so than it does them. There are several people who cameRead MoreEssay on Why should the U.S have border patrol?1611 Words   |  7 PagesBorder Patrol: Why should the U.S have border patrol? 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A country founded by immigrants perpetuallyRead MoreArizona’s Immigration Law Essay988 Words   |  4 PagesIt is clear that illegal immigration has gotten out of control and constringent measures need to be taken to protect the United States borders. The local Government of Arizona recently decided to take control of the situation, by passing the â€Å"Support our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act† {House Bill 2162}. This bill gives law enforcement officers and agencies the authority, to lawfully stop, detain and arrest anyone who appears to look like an illegal alien. The bill out-right condonesRead MoreIllegal Immigration Is A Hot Topic Debate864 Words   |  4 PagesIllegal immigration is a hot topic debate in today society as many people have their viewpoints on it. Immigration could be the second most talked about maybe first topic behind terrorism. Illegal immigration has been going on since foreigners were allowed in the US in the early 20th century. Even back ed then, there were mixed emotions as many Americans did not favor foreigners and there were many attempts to restrict what they were allowed to do. Immigrants come across the border every day. AccordingRead MoreEssay on Cause and Effect of Illegal Immigration 1344 Words   |  6 PagesIllegal immigration still remains as one of the major problems on the U.S-Mexico border in our country. The effect of having illegal immigrants in our country puts the U.S in a dire situation. Many people are even starting to question the authority of the U.S. Customs and U.S. Border Patrol agents. Even though Homeland Security is always consistently hiring for U.S customs and border patrol agents to watch over the southern border to make sure no illegal immigrants sneak into the U.S. Many peopleRead MoreImmigration Act Of 1965 And The Immigration Reform Essay1648 Words   |  7 Pagescountless citizens to be open when it comes to immigration, while keeping the country hospitable to its citizens fo r generations to come. However, this attitude to immigration is a fairly recent phenomenon in American history, especially in regards to immigrants coming in from non-Western European countries. With the introduction of the Immigration Act of 1965 and the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) came about the changes to immigration policy that would forever change the face ofRead MoreEconomics And Immigration : The Economics Of U.s. Immigration Policy964 Words   |  4 PagesEconomics and Immigration Immigration is a topic on everyone s minds these days. With presidential candidates vying for votes in debates and political campaigns, immigration has been talked about quite a bit. But what is truly known about immigration? Since it is such a divisive issue, it is hard to know what is true and what isn’t. Unfortunately, the information most readily available to us comes in the form of opinionated articles and biased speeches by presidential candidates. Because the information

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Language As A System Of Communication - 1053 Words

Language is an important aspect in our day to day life because it enables us to communicate. The effective communication is made possible with the help of language. Language and communication are so closely related that they are almost the same. If we used a dictionary to find alternative words for language the top alternative is verbal communication , words , speech and talking . Consider the following definitions of language found in dictionaries and introductory textbooks: a. Language is a system of arbitrary, vocal symbols which permit all people in a given culture, or other people who have learned the system of that culture, to communicate or interact (Finocchario 1964:8) b. Language is a system of communication by sound, operating through the organs of speech and hearing, among members of a given community, and using vocal symbols possessing arbitrary conventional meanings (Pei 1966:141) c. Language is any set or symbols of linguistic symbols as used in a more or less uniform fashion by a number of people who are thus enabled to communicate intelligibly with one another (Random House Dictionary of the English Language 1966:806). d. Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication (Wardhaugh 1972:3). e. [Language is] any means, vocal or other, of expressing or communicating feeling or thought ... a system of conventionalized signs, especially words or gestures having fixed meanings. (Webster s New International Dictionary of theShow MoreRelatedLanguage As A Symbolic Communication System1952 Words   |  8 PagesLanguage is something that we need and use for everything in our lives. Language is, â€Å"a symbolic communication system that is learned instead of biologically inherited.† (O’Neil, 2006). Language is communication that is either written down or spoken in words or sentences. We need to have a good understanding of language to learn, work and for our normal lives. You need to know language to be able to communicate with other people. Language has structure and meaning, for example words and sentencesRead MoreSign Language Is A Complex System Of Communication2007 Words   |  9 PagesThere is not movement that does not speak both a language intelligib le without instructions (Mirzoeff 16). Sign Language is a complex system of communication; a language which uses visual gestures and signs made by one’s hands blended with the use of facial expressions, body positions, and other gestures. Sign Language has played a signiï ¬ cant role in deaf and hard of hearing culture and is the major communication alternative for those whom are deaf or hard of hearing with a beautiful history of originRead MoreAugmentative Communication Systems-Sign Languages, PECS500 Words   |  2 PagesSummary The topic for todays reading was Augmentative Communication Systems-Sign Languages, PECS. In the assigned reading and module, we observe that a characteristic of autism is difficulty developing and using verbal speech to communicate with others. The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is used to help children with autism to develop a system for communicating with others across multiple environments. It is used most often with learners that are non-verbal, but can also be usedRead MoreThe National Deaf Education Project982 Words   |  4 PagesEducation Project). He has strong beliefs regarding the Deaf community and culture and the Deaf’s rights and liberties as Americans. Specifically, he believes that communication and language is a right for human beings and should become a necessity for learning. He established the NDEP to become the model and articulate a plan for communication in the educational setting for deaf and hard of hearing students in the United Sta tes (National Deaf Education Project). The board of the NDEP consists of representativesRead MoreThe Human Language And Modern Language1179 Words   |  5 Pagesbarrier that limit many animals. But, the honey bee’s form of communication does not allow them to â€Å"speak† of the past or think abstractly, so it is a rather limited useage of displacement. There has not been any animal that can use displacement to the degree in which is used in human language. Traditional transmission: The human language has a very complex structure, one that comprises of systems such as grammar, syntax, and phonemes. Language acquisition in its simplest terms is the process by whichRead MoreThe Role Of Communicative Intent For Communication Essay1276 Words   |  6 Pagespeople who struggle with communication every day. A person who cannot effectively communicate is limited in his/her ability to make decisions, to socially interact with others, to express basic wants and needs, and can be isolated from the world in many ways. There is a multiplicity of methods for communication, both verbal and nonverbal. Different types of communication include, but are not limited to, gestures, body language, sign language, picture exchange communication systems (PECS), and augmentative-alternativeRead MoreThe Origin of Language in Human Evolution Essay1209 Words   |  5 PagesLanguage is a complex system evolved from animal cognition system not from animal communication, suggesting that onl y humans with complex brain system were capable of developing (Ulbaek, 1998). Whereas other animal species communicate through vocalised sounds, songs, or gestures specially primates such as apes. Similarly gestures and hand gestures were the form of communication used by early hominids, but Homo habilis and Homo erectus started to use vocalisations and decreasing the frequent use ofRead MoreLanguage And The Human Language1235 Words   |  5 PagesLanguage in its base form can be seen as the use of sounds (and at times signs or symbols) with the desire to communicate or express oneself. We can dig deeper however and language is also defined as the use of a socially shared code that represents whole concepts by using symbols as well as combinations of those symbols or in layman’s terms, grammar. Today, scientists argue as to whether or not animals truly have language. In my opinion animals do not have language but rather they have a communicationRead MoreLanguage, Exemplar, A nd Goodness Of Fit1579 Words   |  7 PagesLanguage, Exemplar, and Goodness of Fit Although it is clear that human language is a very different communication system than those of other species. The jury is still out on the issue of whether language is a really a system different from other human cognitive systems. The status of language is a major issue for cognitive psychology. Human Language The ability to separate the essential aspects of human language from the properties of a particular language can shed light on how language is developedRead MoreDo Animals Have Language?1403 Words   |  6 Pageswe can say animals have language? Are animals capable of language? It is in the opinion of the author that animals do not have the capability of language; this essay will focus and put forward the evidence as to why this opinion takes place. Language is a form of communication; it can be visual, audio or sensory. In humans the vocal language provides only 10 per cent of how we communicate, body language plays a much higher role, however, both verbal and non verbal language in humans is intentional

Friday, December 13, 2019

Birthday Party Essay Free Essays

Last February, I experienced something new: a party with my friends. My birthday parties were usually just family and maybe one friend, but this time I got to invite several friends. Lupe arrived first. We will write a custom essay sample on Birthday Party Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now She and I have been growing apart for a while, so it was awkward with just her there. I talked to her for a few minutes, then the others got there. When everyone had just arrived, we hung out in the hallway at first because it was a little awkward. My mom had hired a girl to do our nails, so when she arrived we all went into the living room where she got started on our nails. At that point, everyone started having fun. I hadn’t seen, Lara or Duu’aa in a while; I got to catch up with them then, which I very much enjoyed. Lara is often stressed out. That night, however, she was in a very good mood so we had fun just talking. I hadn’t seen Duu’aa in over a year, so I was very excited that she was coming. I was happy to see her and Lara and just talk them. The conversations themselves weren’t anything special; it was just seeing two friends I’d missed that made me so happy. Ashley had drunk too much coffee earlier that day, so she was very hyper. This made the party more fun, because she kept laughing at everything, which made me laugh. That was the most fun I had in as long as I can remember. Nothing could bother me that night. I don’t have much of a social life; despite this being my sixteenth birthday party, it was the first time I’d had lots of friends over and it put me in the best mood I remember ever being in. This experience reminds me of what God said in Genesis: â€Å"It is not good for man to be alone.† To me this says that I need to become closer to my friends, because I long for deeper friendships. This party is a wonderful memory to me. I thought I held on to it because I felt so happy that night, but looking back now, I realize that it’s more than that. I held on to this memory because it was a time that I had a taste of something I want so badly- lots of close friends. Grandma says that because I never went to school, I never learned how to make friends. I think she’s right about that. However, while I never gained social skills that other kids have gained from going to school, I gained something much more precious- a solid foundation in my Catholic faith. Being raised in a strong Catholic Christian environment, I was sheltered from many bad influences. I do wonder what would have happened if I had gone to public school, but I am grateful to my parents that I wasn’t. It would probably have been much easier for Mom to put my siblings and I in school and let others take care of us during the   day, but she didn’t do that. She loved us enough to sacrifice the time that many other mothers have to themselves during the school day and to sacrifice in many other ways also. She continues to do so everyday. How to cite Birthday Party Essay, Essays

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Decision Technologies Agribusiness Problems †MyAssignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about the Decision Technologies for Agribusiness Problems. Answer: Introduction Good harvest is a small health food shop in Sunshine coast which sales organic food and has been in operation for a year now and it moving to the second year in business (Harvest, n.d.). They deliver weekly organic produce directly from their farms and other local farms directly the customers doorstep using their home delivery service model. Good harvest farm produce ranges from Ayurvedic, bakery, dairy, drinks, fruit, grocery, harvest kitchen etc. up to water. Their main mission is to connect local community or local people with local farmers, supplying chemical free and safe produce at an affordable price, support farmers who invest in ecologically responsible farming and finally provide education on seasonal, nutrition consumption and sustainability. However, there are problems affecting this agribusiness industry as stated by (Lowe, 2004) that the supply of food in agribusiness is characterized by a number of uncertainties in both supply and demand chain and it required better te chnological tools and management in decision making in the sector. Good harvest is facing challenges of high cost of goods to be sold to the customers, revenue which might be lower depending on the sales and finally average sales. Good harvest might also face problems of people in the community wanting to buy produce which are not local and also the problem of supply and demand where the local farmers arent able to meet demand with their supply. Problem definition and business intelligence Two datasets were provided which had data for sales from Good Harvest Company on all their sales for their first year in business. Our data variables for the first dataset were product class, product name, product category, quantity, weight, total sales, COGS, net profit, location in the shop and total profit. For the second data set our variables were day, month, season, GST inclusive, GST exclusive, gross sales, net sales, total cash, credit total, MasterCard total, visa total, house account, total orders, average sales, staff cost, weekday, rainfall and profit total. We had four research questions as listed below What are the top/worst selling products in terms of sales? Is there a difference in payment methods? Are the differences in sales performance based on where the product is located in the shop? How does this effect both profits and revenue? Is there a difference in sales and gross profit between different months of the year? Are their differences in sales performance between different seasons? How does this relate to rainfall and profit? A number of statistical methodologies were applied to answer the above research question which ranged from test of association (chi-square test of association), test of difference of means (t test methods) (Rouder, 2009) descriptive statistics using custom tables. For the first research question (1) SPSS custom tables was used to produce the results where products were placed in the row field and sum of sales on the column field the reason for using this method is to produce results which are tabulated for easy comparison among the produce. The second part of the question (1.a) which was used to test if there was a difference is payment method, a one way ANOVA was applied to test the significance since one way ANOVA tests whether the mean value of all payment methods was equal. On the second research question, we tested the association between sales and location of the product in the shop using chi-square test of association the reason is that chi-square help us to find out whether t here is an association between the variables (Goodman, 1971). On the second part of the question custom tables were used to show the distribution of sales and profit against location in the shop the reason is for provision of good visualization to help in comparison. On the third question one way ANOVA was used for comparison of means of profit and sales within months. Finally, on the last question, one way ANOVA was used to test the whether the mean sales within seasons were different and on the second part of the question custom tables was used to show the distribution. Visualization and descriptive statistics Descriptive statistics are simple statistics which describe variables, this include mean, range, variance etc. (Daniel, 1995). Table 1: Distribution of produce by good harvest (top 5 by count). Product Class Frequency Percent Snacks Chocolates 110 10.6% Personal Products 96 9.3% Dry Goods 84 8.1% Vegetable 76 7.4% Dairy 66 6.4% Table 2: Distribution of produce by good harvest (bottom 5 by count). Product Class Frequency Percent Market 2 0.2% Snacks 2 0.2% Juicing 1 0.1% Pastas 1 0.1% Salad Greens 1 0.1% The figure below is a pie chart sowing distribution of good harvest products. Table 3 below shows descriptive statistics for the payment method used by Good harvest with both mean, minimum and maximum. Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Cash_Total 366 0 1195 404.29 153.643 Credit_Total 366 0 1407 584.80 228.860 Visa_Total 366 0 1407 555.85 244.870 Mastercard_Total 366 0 399 22.09 67.823 House_Account 366 -264 1113 37.39 113.204 Valid N (listwise) 366 Table 4 below shows descriptive statistics of total profit with mean total profit, minimum and maximum. N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Total Profit 1034 .00 8702.93 164.7338 482.10651 Valid N (listwise) 1034 Results and Analysis In this section, we present the results of our analysis where from our first research question we identified vegetables as the most selling product with sales of $66,233 while juicing was the worst selling product with sales of $5 only. The other products which includes bakery, grocery etc, their sales falls in between the sales of vegetables and juicing. From this results we can establish that vegetables are the mainly bought product from good harvest compared to the rest of the products with juicing being the worst selling product among them. Table 5 below shows a snippet of our results from the analysis. Table 5: Distribution of sales among products Total Sales ($) Sum Product Class Ayurvedic 679 Bakery 19038 Chocolates Slices 185 Coconut Water 5656 After performing ANOVA test for comparing the cash total, visa total, MasterCard total, credit total and house account total, our p-value was found to be 0.00 (p0.05) hence we reject the null hypothesis which states that there is no difference between the payment method and conclude that there was a difference between the mean of payment method. On the second question where we were testing whether there was a significant difference between sales performance and location of the product in the shop we obtained a p value of 0.00 (p0.05). Table 5 below shows the results after performing a chi-square test of association. Table 6: Results of chi-square test of association between sales and location Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymptotic Significance (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 3627.238a 3340 .000 Likelihood Ratio 2464.848 3340 1.000 Linear-by-Linear Association 1.302 1 .254 N of Valid Cases 1034 From this results we reject our null hypothesis which stated that sales and location of the product in the shop are independent. Hence, we conclude that sales performance are largely affected by where the product is located in the shop. A comparison between profit and location of the products in the shop showed that items in the front part of the shop are likely to generate more profit compared to the items placed on the other parts of the shop. In our results products on the front would generate 39,073.98 as total profit while items placed in the outside front generating the least profit of 34,192.37. Table 6 below shows the distribution of profit against location of products in the shop. Table 7: Distribution of location of products in the shop against total profit Total Profit Sum Location of product in shop Front 39073.98 Left 37430.42 Outside Front 21715.52 Rear 37922.48 Right 34192.37 A comparison between sales and location of the products in the shop showed that items in the rear part of the shop are likely to generate more sales compared to the items placed on the other parts of the shop. In our results products on the rear would generate 96,493 as total sales while items placed in the outside front generating the least sales of 40,612. Table 6 below shows the distribution of sales against location of products in the shop. Table 8: Distribution of location of products in the shop against total sales Total Sales ($) Sum Location of product in shop Front 88777 Left 82052 Outside Front 40612 Rear 96493 Right 74607 On testing whether there was a difference in sales and profit between different months of the year, we obtained p value of 0.222 (p0.05) on gross sales. Hence, we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is no difference in sales between months. On profit our p value is 0.000 (p0.05) meaning that we reject our null hypothesis and conclude that profit there is a significant difference in profit between months of the year. Table 8 below show the results of our analysis. Table 9: Results of ANOVA analysis of sales and profit between months ANOVA Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Gross Sales Between Groups 1508892.5 11 137172.043 1.300 .222 Within Groups 37349615.5 354 105507.388 Total 38858507.9 365 Profit Total Between Groups 35370.9 11 3215.541 3.867 .000 Within Groups 294370.0 354 831.554 Total 329741.0 365 Finally, testing sales performance between seasons gave a p value of 0.153 (p0.05) meaning that we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is no significant difference between performance of sales and seasons. Table 10: ANOVA on performance of sales and between seasons ANOVA Gross Sales Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 560240.410 3 186746.803 1.765 .153 Within Groups 38298267.52 362 105796.319 Total 38858507.9 365 On season and profit, Spring was found to be the most profitable season and Autumn the least profitable season as shown below. Table 11: Distribution of profits between seasons Profit Total Sum Season of the year Summer 2859.02 Autumn 1815.35 Winter 2542.19 Spring 4023.21 On season and rainfall, Winter received the highest rainfall in comparison to the other seasons. Table 12: Distribution of rainfall between seasons Rainfall Sum Season of the year Summer 414 Autumn 379 Winter 441 Spring 218 Discussion and recommendations From our analysis, we have established that vegetables are the most selling product and juicing is the least sold product and in regards to this Good harvest should concentrate in stocking more of vegetables and least of juicing in their shops. On payment methods, we established that there is no significance difference among the payment method and therefore the company can use any payment method with its customers. The location of products in the shop is very important and therefore Good harvest should position its products such that products with low demand should be placed in a strategic place to boost sales and revenue. We established from our analysis that there is no significant difference in sales between months and season and this means that the company can always make sales regardless of the month or the season of the year. References Anova, S., 2002. Statistical computing: an introduction to data analysis using S-Plus. Daniel, W., 1995. Biostatistics: a foundation for analysis in the health sciences.. Goodman, L., 1971. Partitioning of chi-square, analysis of marginal contingency tables, and estimation of expected frequencies in multidimensional contingency tables. Journal of the American statistical Association, pp. 66(334), pp.339-344. Harvest, G., n.d. good harvest organic. [Online] Available at: Lowe, T., 2004. Decision technologies for agribusiness problems: A brief review of selected literature and a call for research. Manufacturing Service Operations Management, 6(3), pp.201-208.6(3). s.l.:s.n. Rouder, J., 2009. Bayesian t tests for accepting and rejecting the null hypothesis.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

ATHENS Essays - Ancient Agora Of Athens, Athens, Free Essays

ATHENS Essays - Ancient Agora Of Athens, Athens, Free Essays ATHENS THE ANCIENT CITY OF ATHENS is a photographic archive of the archaeological and architectural remains of ancient Athens (Greece). It is intended primarily as a resource for students of classical languages, civilization, art, archaeology, and history at Indiana University who may wish to take a "virtual tour" of the chief excavated regions and extant monuments. We also hope that this site will be useful to all who have an interest in archaeological exploration and the recovery, interpretation, and preservation of the past. ?Copyright All of the images presented here are from the personal slide collection of Kevin T. Glowacki and Nancy L. Klein. You are free to download and use unmodified copies of these images for non-commercial purposes providing that you include a reference to this site and copyright notice. If you use any of these images for presentations or papers, or have any comments or suggestions, we would appreciate hearing from you by email or post. (We especially enjoy email from students & teachers in grade school & high school!) Indiana University Bloomington Home Page. IU Classical Studies Home Page. Archaeological Institute of America, Central Indiana Society Home Page. The WWWorld of Archaeology. (From ARCHAEOLOGY Magazine). Exploring Ancient World Cultures. ("An exhibition of WWW sites pertaining to ancient world cultures," by Anthony F. Beavers of the University of Evansville and Bill Hemminger.) Topography & Monuments of Ancient Athens When archaeologists use the term "topography" in their work, they usually mean a combination of several different subjects, including 1) the geography & natural resources of a country, 2) the architectural form of a city as it develops over several centuries or even millenia, and 3) the study of different functional areas within a city or its countryside, such as sanctuaries, civic centers, marketplaces, workshops, private houses, & cemeteries. A student of "topography" must be prepared to dabble in subjects such as architecture, art, literature, history, epigraphy, numismatics, religion, politics, physical anthropology, and geology, as well as having an understanding of the methodologies of archaeological excavation and regional survey. Hence, "topography" can be a truly interdisplinary adventure, full of all the things that make classical archaeology such an exciting field to study. One of the most important sources for the topography of Athens (in particular) and Greek archaeology (in general) is an eye-witness account written by the traveler Pausanias in the 2nd century A.D. Pausanias spent several years traveling throughout Greece and he recorded many fascinating details about the famous cities, temples, and monuments which were already considered ancient even in his own day! Athens was one of the first places he visited on his journey and his description of the city provides us with some invaluable clues about the location, form, decoration, function, and historical significance of many prominent monuments. (It provides us with some problems too, since the evidence from modern archaeological excavation does not always readily agree with what Pausanias records. Is it a matter of physical preservation? Or a problem with our methods of archaeological interpretation? Or could it be that sometimes Pausanias and/or his tour guides got a few of the "facts" mixed up a phenomenon all too familiar to any modern traveler who has tried to absorb all of the sights & sounds & history of one of the great cities of the world!). Of the many possible ways in which THE ANCIENT CITY OF ATHENS could have been organized, we have chosen to present the monuments in essentially the same order as they were visited by Pausanias. For each section, we have also provided a "link" to an English translation of Pausanias from the PERSEUS Project (a great website where you can learn much more about ancient Greek culture, literature, history, and art!). Although not everything mentioned by Pausanias has been preserved, and despite the fact that Pausanias tended to omit monuments of the Roman period (which were, after all, "modern" as far as he was concerned), we think that this is a natural and effective way to structure our "virtual tour" of the city. KALO TAXIDI! The Kerameikos: Kerameikos Cemetery, Public & Private Grave Monuments, "Themistoklean" Wall, Sacred Gate, Dipylon Gate, Pompeion. The Agora: Commercial & Civic Center of Ancient Athens: Royal Stoa, Stoa of Zeus Eleutherios, Temple of Apollo Patroos, Metroon, Bouleuterion, Tholos, Monument of the Eponymous Heroes, Hephaisteion, Altar of the 12 Gods, Stoa of Attalos, Church of the Holy Apostles. The Roman Agora, Tower of the Winds, & the Library of Hadrian: Gate of Athena Archegetis, Colonnade, Fountain, Propylon,